Kalyan (Pronunciation: [kəljaːɳ]) is a city on the banks of the Ulhas River in the Thane district of Maharashtra state in the Konkan division. It is governed by Kalyan-Dombivli Municipal Corporation. Kalyan is a subdivision (Taluka) of Thane district. Kalyan and its neighboring township of Dombivli jointly form Kalyan-Dombivli Municipal Corporation, abbreviated as KDMC. It is a founding city of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region. Kalyan is the 9th biggest city in Maharashtra and 29th in India.
The name ‘Kalyan’ is believed to be from Kalyan Swami, a great disciple of Sadguru Samartha Ramdas Swami who arrived at Durga Devi Temple on Fort Durgadi, which was won by Shri Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. In Colonial India, the British Raj referred to this city as Killian, Cullinan, or Calliannee.
The city of Kalyan was surrounded by a fort wall, the construction of which began during Shah Jahan’s reign and was completed during Aurangzeb’s reign in 1694 A.D. This city wall, which ran more than 2000 yards, 2123 to be precise, was guarded by 4 gates and 11 towers. The fort wall enclosed an area of 70 acres and on a high mound near the Kalyan creek, where the current Ganesh ghat stands, was a fine fort since as early as 1570.
The wall of the fort along the top of the inner bank of the ditch, and, near the north end, had a gateway known as the Delhi or Killyacha Darwaja.
Under the Marathas (1760–72), a new gate about 150 feet (46 m) to the south of the Ganesh gate was opened near the mansion of Ramji Mahadeo Biwalkar, the Peshwa’s Governor. In the citadel of the fort Marathas built a small wooden temple of Durgadevi behind the mosque and called the fort Durgadi Killian in honor of the goddess, a name which it still bears. The fort measures 220 feet (67 m) in length and somewhat less in breadth. Under English rule, the fort wall was dismantled and stones carried away to build the Kalyan and Thane piers and a dwelling for the customs inspector in the west of the Kalyan fort. The gate to the northwest is almost the only trace of the fort wall, which is of rough stone masonry. In 1876 the original idol of the goddess Durga was stolen.
The majority of Kalyan citizens are Hindus with Muslims being a minority.
Trains, Buses, and Auto-rickshaws are the important mode of transport in and around Kalyan. 200,000 Kalyan citizens travel daily by local trains.
Kalyan Junction railway station is on the railway line between Mumbai and Karjat/Kasara. The city of Kalyan has access to four railway stations on the Central line – Thakurli Station, Vitthalwadi, Shahad Station, and Kalyan Junction. Kalyan Junction serves as an important railway station for the people in and around Mumbai.
One of the oldest and most important railway projects of Ahmednagar railway station was the Kalyan-Ahmednagar railway project which was in the planning stage since the British regime. It was referred to as the 3rd Ghat project. The survey of this project was carried out in 1973,2000, 2006, 2014, etc. This project was in a pink book in 2010. unfortunately, this project could not be started. The alignment length of this project was 184 km and it could have been the shortest route for Marathwada, Andhra, and Telangana. The major challenge for this project was the 18.96 km long tunnel in malshej ghat section.
Malshej Kriti Samiti is following the Kalyan Ahmednagar railway project. The Kalyan-murbad section which is the first phase of this project is already under the survey stage.
With a population of more than 700,000, Kalyan is a part of the Kalyan-Dombivli Municipal Corporation established in 1983, with municipalities of Kalyan, Dombivli, Ambernath, and 81 other villages. It was then one of the largest urban local bodies in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) and the state, with an area of around 209 km2 (81 sq mi). The government of Maharashtra has decided to delete the major area of the corporation limits on different occasions. Presently the total area of the corporation has remained and measures about 67 km2 (26 sq mi).
KDMC is a municipal corporation in the Thane district of Maharashtra State, India. The municipal corporation was formed in 1983 to administer the twin townships of Kalyan and Dombivli. The municipal corporation has a population of 15,18,762 citizens as per the 2011 census. Due to its highly educated population, it is often called the second cultural capital of Maharashtra after Pune. Kalyan was once famous as a port in ancient times. Records of its existence as a premier port in the region have been found in ancient Greek manuscripts.
The corporation is governed by the Bombay Provincial Municipal Corporation Act 1949. The following authorities are given charge to implement the provisions of the act:
- A corporation
- A standing committee
- Ward committees
- Municipal commissioner
Both cities are divided into 122 wards. Municipal Corporation consists of Councillors elected directly at Ward Elections. The number and boundaries of the Wards into which the city is divided are specified by the State Election Commissioner. There are five Councillors nominated by the corporation. As per the provisions of the Act, the total number of Councillors is 121. The Corporation elects one of its members as the Mayor and another to be the Deputy Mayor.