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Vadodara, also known as Baroda, is a major city in the Indian state of Gujarat. It is the second largest city by area in Gujarat after Ahmedabad.It serves as the administrative headquarters of the Vadodara district and is situated on the banks of the Vishwamitri River, 141 kilometres (88 mi) from the state capital of Gandhinagar. The railway line and National Highway 8, which connect Delhi with Mumbai, pass through Vadodara. The city is named for its abundance of the Banyan (Vad) tree. Vadodara is also locally referred to as the Sanskari Nagari (transl. ’Cultural City’) and Kala Nagari (transl. ’City of Art’) of India.
The city in one period[when?] was called Chandanavati after[vague] the rule of Chanda of the Dodiya Rajputs. The capital was also known[when?] as Virakshetra or Viravati (Land of Warriors). Later on,[when?] it was known as Vadpatraka or Vadodará,[vague] and according to tradition,[whose?][when?] is a corrupt form of the Sanskrit word vatodar, meaning “in the belly of the Banyan tree”. It is, as of 2000, almost impossible to ascertain when the various changes in the name were made; early English travellers and merchants of the 18th century mention the town as Baroda, and it is from this, that the name Baroda is derived; in 1974 (well after independence) the official name of the city was changed to Vadodara.
Vadodara is located at 22.30°N 73.19°E in western India at an elevation of 39 metres (128 ft). It is the tenth-largest city in India with an area of 400 square kilometres (150 sq mi) and a population of 3.5 million, according to the 2010–11 census. The city sits on the banks of the Vishwamitri River, in central Gujarat. The Vishwamitri frequently dries up in the summer, leaving only a small stream of water. The city is located on the fertile plain between the Mahi and Narmada Rivers. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the cosmopolis falls under seismic zone-III, on a scale of I to V (in order of increasing proneness to earthquakes).
Vadodara features a borderline tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw) that despite the roughly 850 millimetres or 33 inches of rain that the city receives annually is due to the area’s high potential evapotranspiration very close to being classified as a hot semi-arid climate (BSh). There are three main seasons: summer, monsoon and winter. Aside from the monsoon season, the climate is dry. The weather is hot during March to July, when the average maximum is 39 °C or 102.2 °F, and the average minimum is 24 °C or 75.2 °F. From November to February, the average maximum temperature is 30 °C or 86 °F, the average minimum is 15 °C or 59 °F, and the climate is extremely dry. Cold northerly winds are responsible for mildly chilly days in January. The southwest monsoon brings a humid climate from mid-June to mid-September. The average rainfall is 85 cm (33 in), but infrequent heavy torrential rains cause the river to flood like the 2005 Gujarat flood or the 2008 Indian floods which were catastrophic.
The highest recorded temperature was 46.7 °C (116.1 °F) on 11 May 1960 crossed with 48.0 °C (118.4 °F) on 19 May 2016, while the lowest recorded temperature was −1.1 °C (30.0 °F) on 15 January 1935.
According to the 2011 India census, Vadodara metropolitan area had a population of 3,500,000. In Vadodara, 9% of the population is under 6 years of age. Gujarati, Marathi, Hindi, and English are the languages spoken in the city. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%.
In Vadodara various large-scale industries such as Indian Oil Corporation(IOCL), Gujarat State Fertilizers & Chemicals (GSFC), Vadodara Manufacturing Division(VMD)(Formerly IPCL) of Reliance Industries Limited, Parikh Industries, Linde Engineering India, L&T and Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals Limited (GACL) have come up in the vicinity of Gujarat Refinery and all of them are dependent on it for their fuel and feedstock. Other large-scale public sector units are Heavy Water Project, Gujarat Industries Power Company Limited (GIPCL), Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) & Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL). In addition to these public sector enterprises, a number of other large-scale enterprises have come up in the private sector such as Avalanch Global Solutions, Bombardier Transportation.
Vadodara Airport (IATA: BDQ) is located north-east of the city. Vadodara has flight connections with Mumbai, New Delhi,Hyderabad and Bangalore. Air India and IndiGo are currently operating their services from the airport. A new integrated international terminal has been constructed at the Vadodara airport and was inaugurated in October 2016. Vadodara is the first Green Airport in Gujarat and Second Green Airport in India after Kochi.
Vadodara was part of the historic Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway (BBCI), which arrived in the city in January 1861. On 5 November 1951 the BBCI Railway was merged with the Saurashtra, Rajputana and Jaipur railways to create the Western Railway. Vadodara Railway Station now belongs to the Western Railway zone of Indian Railways and is a major junction on the Western Railway Main Line.
The under-construction Mumbai–Ahmedabad high-speed rail corridor, India’s first High-speed rail line will have a stop at the existing Vadodara Junction railway station. The station is planned for renovation to accommodate the new line.