Chandrapur is a municipality in Chandrapur district, Maharashtra state, India. It is the centre of governance of Chandrapur district. Chandrapur was a fort city founded by Khandakya Ballal Sah, a Gond king of the 13th century The city is situated at the confluence of the Irai and Zarpat rivers. The area around the city is rich in cola seams. Hence, Chandrapur is known as “black gold city”.
Chandrapur has a hot and dry climate. December is the coldest month, with a minimum average temperature of 9 °C and a maximum average temperature of 23.2 °C. May is the hottest month with a mean maximum temperature of 43 °C and a mean minimum temperature of 28.2 °C. On 2 June 2007, there was an highest recorded temperature of 49 °C. On January 1899, there was a lowest recorded temperature of 2.8 °C.
Archeological finds such as signs of pottery making, suggest inhabitation of the Chadrapur area in Neolithic times.
From ancient times, Chandrapur has fallen under the control of many different rulers. Between 322 BCE and 187 BCE, much of India, including Maharashtra, was part of the Maurya Empire. From 187 BCE to 78 BCE, Chandrapur was part of the Shunga Empire which controlled much of central and eastern India. The Satavahana Empire controlled Chandrapur from the 1st century BCE to the 2nd century CE. The Vakataka dynasty ruled from the area from the mid 3rd century CE to 550 CE. The Kalachuri dynasty ruled in the area in the 6th and 7th centuries CE. The Rashtrakuta dynasty followed, controlling the Chandrapur region between the 7th and 10th centuries. The Chalukya dynasty ruled in the region to the 12th century CE. The Seuna (Yadava) dynasty of Devagiri ruled a kingdom, including the Chadrapur area, in approximately 850 CE and continued until 1334 CE.
The Gond people are part of the Adivasi (indigenous people) of India. In ancient times, the Gond diaspora spread throughout central India. After the passage many kings, who were largely subservient to other rulers, Khandkya Ballal (1470 – 1495) came to the throne. He founded Chandrapur and died there. Gond rule was lost in 1751 to the Maratha period. The last ruler of the Maratha dynasty, Raghuji Bhonsle III died in 1853 without issue.
In 1853, Chandrapur was annexed to British India. During the British colonial period the area of Chandrapur was called “Chanda district”. By 1871, Anglican and Scottish Episcopalmissionaries had arrived in Chanda.
In 1874, three tehsils were created: Viz Mul, Warora and Bramhpuri. The upper Godavai district of Madras was abolished and four tehsils were added to Chandrapur to form one tehsil with Sironcha, approximately 150 km to the south, as its centre of governance. In 1895, the headquarters was transferred to Chandrapur. In 1905, a new tehsil with headquarters at Gadchiroli was created through the transfer of zamindari estates from Bramhpuri and Chandrapur tehsil. In 1907, a small area of land was transferred from Chandrapur to the newer districts and another area of about 1560 km2, comprising three divisions of the lower Sironcha tehsil (Cherla, Albak and Nugir) were transferred to Madras State. Between 1911 and 1955, no major changes occurred in the boundaries of the district or its tehsils.
British rule ended with the partition of India in 1947.
Republic of India
In 1956, with the reorganization of Indian states, Chandrapur district was transferred from Madhya Pradesh to Bombay state. In 1959, part of Adilabad district of Hyderabad state, was transferred to Chandrapur district. In May 1960, Chandrapur district became part of the Maharashtra state. Following the 1981 Census of India, Chandrapur district was divided into Chandrapur district and Gadchiroli district. This was for administrative convenience and industrial and agricultural development.
Chandrapur lies on major state highways MH MSH 6, MH MSH 9 and state highways MH SH 233, MH SH 243 and MH SH 264. Chandrapur is connected to many cities in Maharashtra by the Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation bus service.
Chandrapur railway station is managed by the Nagpur CR railway division of the Central Railway. Chandrapur lies on the New Delhi to Chennai line. The Chanda Fort railway stationis managed by the Nagpur SEC railway division. It lies on the Bangalore to Gorakhpur line.
Chandrapur Airport, operated by the Maharashtra Airport Development Company, is situated near Morwa village on MH SH 264, about 12 km from the city. The airstrip is 950 m in length. Development of the airport is limited by surrounding obstructions, particularly the thermal power plant. The nearest airport with scheduled flights is the Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport in Nagpur.
Place of Interest
Mahakali Temple, Chandrapur
Anandvan Ashram, Chandrapuras clean
Chandrapur Super Thermal Power Station, Chandrapur
Gond Raja Fort, Chandrapur
Ancient Caves, Chandrapur
Bhamragarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Chandrapur
Chaprala Wildlife Sanctuary, Chandrapur
Urjagram Tadali, Chandrapur